Gastrointestinal bleeding management can be done by the following methods depending on the severity:
- IV /red cell transfusion
- Proton pump inhibitors and erythromycin administration with antibiotics
- Endoscopy, if started within 24 hours: ligation is done for esophageal varices, and gastric varices are sealed by tissue glue
- Injection, thermal probes, and clips for non-variceal bleeding
- Patients with ulcer bleeding - high dose of proton pump inhibitors via endoscope
- Patients with recurrent variceal bleeding require a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
- Antithrombotic agents are also given.