Is follow-up required post kidney transplant?
It is very important to visit your consulting doctor regularly and undergo all prescribed follow-ups and tests to make sure that your new kidney is functioning well. Remember, transplant surgery is a second chance at life and you need to be responsible for your own well-being.
What will it be like after the surgery?
You’ll be under continuous medical observation for 7 to 10 days post surgery, so that we can check whether your new kidney is functioning properly. At times, the new kidney might take some time to start functioning and produce urine. You might have to undergo dialysis till then and also take medications like diuretics to help the kidney expel excess water and salt from your body.
Our nurses and rehabilitation experts will take good care of you and guide you through your recovery.
We have state-of-the-art hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis facility, complete with a water treatment plant to ensure high-quality dialysis for patients.
What are the possible post-transplant risks?
The post-surgical risks, like every other transplant surgery, include rejection, infection, bleeding or reaction to anaesthesia.
Rejection happens when the body fails to recognise the new kidney and fights to destroy it. During the first few weeks or months post-surgery, your body may try to reject your new kidney. This is called acute rejection and occurs in 25 - 55% of the recipients. You’ll be given immuno-suppressants to counter this problem. Remember, it is mandatory to continue these medicines for the rest of your life.
There is also a chance of chronic rejection - a gradual, progressive loss of kidney function that may occur over many years. Unfortunately, there’s no known treatment for chronic rejection and the patient may have depend on dialysis again or opt for another transplant.
Aster Centre of Excellence in Multi-Organ Transplant has a very strong infection control system that’s managed by a highly-trained team of infectious diseases & infection control Physicians. Besides, we also have advanced technology like the HEPA Filter that purifies air to 0.3 microns, creating a safe and sterile environment for the patient.
What are the pre-transplant formalities?
You will have to go through a series of investigations before the surgery to ensure that the donor kidney matches your tissue and blood type. You will also be screened for other health problems including heart or lung diseases.
After these tests, you will be enlisted on the transplant list and also on the organ sharing network list. As soon as a matching recipient is available, we will let you know; and if all factors are favourable, our entire team will work as one to ensure you undergo the surgery without any issues.
What are the types of kidney transplant?
There are two types of kidney transplants: Live donor Transplant and Cadaver Transplant
When a person is transplanted with a kidney from a live donor, it is called Live Donor Transplant. The donor could be anyone - a family member, friend, colleague or even a random person who is generous enough to gift life by donating one of his/ her kidney.
Usually, the success rates of kidney transplants in which the donor and recipient belong to one family (parent/ sibling) are higher. This is because of high donor-recipient compatibility, which means the chances of rejection are very low. A live donor makes things easy as the waiting period is lesser and the patient gets well faster.
Cadaver transplant is when the kidney is got from a donor who is certified brain-dead. He or she would have would have signed up for donation before death. The kidney is surgically removed after obtaining consent from the deceased’s family and transplanted in the recipient.
What is Kidney Transplant?
Kidney transplant is the process of replacing the diseased kidney with a healthy, donated kidney. It is recommended only if the kidneys are so damaged that they cannot be managed medically (Chronic Kidney Disease or End Stage Renal Disease).
In some cases, transplant might not be a practical solution if the patient has an active infection or another life-threatening disease such as cancer, severe heart or lung diseases.
Fortunately, according to worldwide figures, the success rate of kidney transplant is above 95%. This not only comes as a reassurance for those opting for transplant, but also reaffirms the fact that kidney transplant is indeed an effective mode of treatment.
What causes kidney failure?
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when your kidneys have been malfunctioning for more than 3 months. It’s an irreparable, life threatening condition and there might be no visible symptoms at all.
Diabetes (types 1 and 2), high blood pressure, immune system diseases such as Lupus and chronic viral illnesses like AIDS, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C can also cause kidney failure.
The other reasons for kidney failure include: Multiple episodes of urinary tract infection Post-strep infection Polycystic kidney disease Inherited kidney diseases Congenital or birth defects - In many cases, the defect is rectified while the baby is still in mother’s womb; whereas those with major complications can only be managed at a later stage. Drugs and toxins, including long-term use medications like NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs Long-term exposure to certain chemicals
When Should One Seek An Opinion From A Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) Expert?
If your child is diagnosed with any of the above-mentioned conditions. If your physician/pediatrician has advised a bone marrow transplant as an option. Children who are diagnosed with cancers and do not respond to chemotherapy. Children who remain unwell and have recurrent infections. Immunological testing and a visit to an Immunologist is warranted. The immunologist would guide you, in case a transplant is needed in your situation.
What Are The Steps Involved In Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)?
Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) is a complex procedure requiring hospitalization for a month and sometimes longer.
Following are the steps involved: The patient is evaluated for the need for a transplant. In some conditions, a bone marrow transplant is an emergency (for example – severe combined immune deficiency), while in others, it is an elective procedure wherein patients are stabilized before undergoing a transplant. Donor selection – Akin to blood transfusion, where one needs to transfuse blood with the right blood group; a match between the donor and recipient is of paramount importance in Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT). HLA matching is carried out using blood samples or buccal swabs. Healthy siblings who are fully matched on HLA typing offer the best outcome in most of the transplants. Haploidentical transplants (with mother/father being the donor) and matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplants are the other options. Conditioning – Here, the patient is admitted and medications are administered to prepare him/her for the transplant. Bone marrow transplant – Bone marrow-derived from the donor is administered as an intravenous infusion to the patient. Post-transplant recovery – The Patient is given medications and is observed for recovery. This period involves periodic blood tests to ensure recovery is smooth.
What Are The Conditions That Warrant Bone Marrow Transplant?
The broad group of conditions where Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) is useful are as follow - If the bone marrow starts failing to produce blood elements – Aplastic anemia. These individuals have low hemoglobin, white cell counts, and platelet counts and require monthly blood transfusions. Providing new bone marrow from a healthy donor can cure these patients. If the hemoglobin is abnormal – Thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, and other hemoglobinopathies. These children require periodic blood transfusions and Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) can be curative for these diseases. Cancers–Blood cancers (acute leukemia), solid tumors (neuroblastoma), and many other cancers can be treated with Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT). Primary Immune Deficiency diseases – Some children are born with a problem in their immune system and fall ill repeatedly. They may be hospitalized for infections on several occasions. Repeated ear discharge, pneumonia, or diarrhea are often noted. Such children require immunological testing. In many of these immune deficiencies, Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) is curative. Severe Combined Immune Deficiency is often present in young children who fail to gain normal weight and fall ill repeatedly. This condition is universally fatal without a Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT). Metabolic diseases – Some children are born with defects in the enzymes required for a normal metabolism - Inherited disorders of metabolism, congenital storage diseases.