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The department of cardiology at Aster Hospital is known for providing superior quality services in diagnosis and treatment related to heart disorders. We provide services, such as heart transplant, advanced cardiology, interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, and cardiac rehabilitation services for both children and adults. We have a team of heart specialists from India and abroad who provide excellent services in areas of interventional cardiology, paediatric cardiology, vascular interventions, valvular interventions, pacemaker implantations, and interventional radiology. We use advanced and high precision diagnostic tests such as cardiac ultrasound, diagnostic angiography, cardiac CT and MRI, stress echocardiography, electrophysiological study, cardiac biomarker testing to evaluate our patient’s condition and also to find out our treatment outcomes.

Available Hospitals

We provide excellent care, right from diagnosis to the treatment and beyond at our world-class hospitals.

Our Doctors

We have some of the best specialists from around the world, they bring years of experience and offer evidence-based treatment to ensure the best care for you.

Treatments & Procedures

We provide comprehensive treatment for all types diseases under one roof. Our highly experienced doctors supported by especially trained clinical staff, ensure the best care for you.

Advanced Technology & Facilities

Well equipped with the latest medical equipment, modern technology & infrastructure, Aster Hospital is one of the best hospitals in India.

TMT / Stress Test

A stress test, sometimes called a treadmill test or exercise test, helps your doctor find out how well your heart handles its workload.

As your body works harder during the test, it requires more fuel and your heart has to pump more blood.

The test can show if there’s a lack of blood supply through the arteries that go to the heart.


An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a test that records the electrical activity of the heart.

Pediatric Heart Care

The Pediatric heart care at Aster MIMS Kottakkal offers an extensive variety of medical and surgical administrations for both newborn children and children experiencing a confirmation-based approach. It attempts medical and surgical treatment to children with innate and inherited heart illnesses, for example, cardiomyopathy, infective endocarditis and rheumatic fever upheld by an extraordinary group of pediatric cardiovascular specialists that performs inherent heart techniques and pediatric heart transplant.

The treatment of numerous heart failures needs an operation for their treatment and frequently it requires an open-heart operation.

Today more current advancements in cardiovascular catheterization innovation permit treatment of heart deformity in chose patients without an operation. This maintains a strategic distance from the injury of surgery and permits exceptionally fast recuperation and short hospital stay.

The methods are performed in the cardiovascular catheterization lab and require a small needle prick in the crotch


We offer a complete spectrum of electrophysiology. We perform invasive electrophysiology examines utilizing standard and latest strategies in patients with coronary heart diseases and offer both transcatheter cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation. Surgical mapping and intraoperative cryoablation are likewise accessible in patients with inborn coronary illness. We perform autonomic testing utilizing tilt table technology. The Electrophysiology service likewise embeds all transvenous pacemakers, including biventricular pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators


A cardiac catherisation laboratory (cath lab) is a lab that examines and treats diagnostic and interventional techniques to be done on patients who encounter blocks and thereby chestpain, or the individuals who require a pacemaker to redress strange heart rhythms. The cutting edge cardiovascular catherisation laboratory (cath lab) unit implies nearby patients can be dealt with for key heart strategies on their doorstep, instead of flying out to other regions of the world. The modernized facilities include Coronary Angiogram Coronary Angioplasty, Primary Angioplasty, Peripheral Angiogram, Peripheral Angioplasty, PPI, Single & Duel Chamber, TPI, FFR, IVUS-ILAB, EPS+RFA, Retrograde Angioplasty, Renal Angioplasty, 4 Vessel Angiogram, Carotid Angioplasty, Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for heart failure patients, Aortogram, EVAR, Balloon dilation of coarctation of aorta, LV Angiogram, Anerysm Coiling, Cath Study & Right heart study, Balloon Valvuloplasty for mitral , Aortic and pulmonary Stenosis.

Rest & Exercise Stress ECG

Diagnose and measure the ability of the heart to withstand external stress conditions. People often encounter conditions where their heart responds abnormally while working out or climbing stairs. This can create severe complications if ignored. A person might feel strong palpation, increased heartbeat and chest pains. Aster’s Rest & Exercise Stress ECG aims to diagnose all such conditions when the heart may respond abnormally. The expert doctors measure the ability of the heart to respond to external stress. Aster’s infrastructure supports many labs and high-tech machines, it’s experienced team and the Cardiology Department perform these tests in well-controlled conditions.

Head Up-Tilt Test (HUTT)

To find the cause of fainting spells by taking different tests. Young adults or even children may face vasovagal attacks due to a sudden drop in blood pressure. This reduces the circulation of blood and causes unconsciousness and sudden fainting of the person. Aster’s Head Up-Tilt Test aims at testing your body in various angles to understand the cause of fainting spells. The expert doctors record the heart rate and blood pressure while performing the test. Aster’s strong infrastructure, it’s seasoned team, and the Cardiology Department monitor the patient's heart’s response, oxygen levels and blood pressure in the electrophysiology lab.

Holter Monitoring

It tracks heart rhythm to check and confirm any heart-related problems. Patients with an irregular heartbeat could be suffering from arrhythmia. Under this condition, the patient may experience rapid heartbeat or the heart may become slower-paced. It is a symptom that indicates that the electrical signal coordinating the heartbeat is not working. Arrhythmia is potentially fatal and causes severe complications. A cardiologist will recommend you to undergo an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), a common test to diagnose arrhythmia. Holter monitoring is a gift of medical technology that records your uneven heartbeat for 24 to 48 hours continuously. The device is a blessing for patients with a pacemaker as it enables the doctor to study the heart’s activity throughout the day. The cardiology department of the Aster Hospital is ahead of its time. It is equipped with the latest Holter monitor for a thorough examination of the heart and provides an accurate report for proper treatment.

Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Studies

This is a non-invasive imaging test to check the blood flow to the heart muscle and recognize poor areas of blood flow. If a person often experiences chest pain for an extended period or is suspected of coronary artery disease (CAD), he/she needs medical attention from qualified cardiologists. The doctors may recommend a stress myocardial perfusion scan to assess the blood flow, heart muscle damage, etc. Patients who have sustained a heart attack or undergone bypass surgery, angioplasty, or stent placement also need to be examined with the help of myocardial perfusion imaging studies. It is a non-invasive imaging test that assesses the blood flow through the heart muscles and determines if the heart muscle is pumping normally. Aster Hospital’s cardiology department has an exemplary infrastructure with myocardial perfusion imaging studies to detect weak heart muscles and poor blood flow.

Transthoracic & Transoesophageal Echocardiography

This test is performed to visualize and check the performance of aorta, heart and other blood vessels. Patients who suffer from malfunctioning of heart valves or chambers and the heart’s inability to pump blood could be diagnosed with congenital heart valve disease. It involves pulmonary or aortic valves that do not perform properly. Such conditions arise when the valves’ shape and size become irregular, or the flap tissue is insufficient to allow proper blood flow. Patients' conditions may deteriorate if they do not allow timely medical intervention. They need a cardiologist who will prescribe transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, which will determine the patient's heart condition. The cardiology department of Aster Hospital is furnished with highly developed medical equipment that examines the patient’s condition accurately for correct treatment. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography prevent heart failure and death.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

We have state of art First & Only Philips 3 Tesla Ingenia CX Digital MRI, where we can shorten the scan time without compromising image quality. We can perform advanced imaging like neuro perfusion studies, Spectroscopy, subtraction imaging, Cardiac MRI, Foetal MRI, Q flow studies, diffusion weighted whole body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS), Breast MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), arterial spin labelling (ASL) and Cartilage Mapping.

Cardiac Diagnosis

Electrocardiography (ECG)
Treadmill testing
3D Echocardiography
Holter monitoring (1 day, 3 day and long-term monitoring)
CT Coronary Angiography (256 slice & 125 slice CT)

Clinical Support

3 Cath labs including FFR, IFR, IVUS, OCT and Rotablation
Advanced 3D and 4D ECHO machines
Holter Monitoring

Inpatient Facilities

Aster Medcity offers world-class inpatient care to its patients, with the support of an award-winning team of Nurses, Therapists and Technicians.

Wards, double rooms, standard rooms, executive rooms, deluxe rooms presidential suites
Dedicated Cardiac ICU
Independent ICUs with a view that minimise chances of infection and ICU psychosis
Dedicated cardiac surgery suites
Advanced infection control facilities
State-of-the-art cardiac imaging

World-Class Technology

Aster Centre of Excellence in Cardiac Sciences is first facility in Kerala to offer three cathlabs with a state-of-the-art electrophysiology lab / intravascular ultrasound, fractional flow reserve estimate and rotablation. The comprehensive range of medical technology here includes:

Flat panel hybrid vascular biplane cathlab
Low radiation CLARITY cathlab
OR1 Karl Storz Fusion Integrated C Green OT certified surgical suites with autopilot anaesthesia and live sharing facility
Philips IntelliSpace Critical Care & Anaesthesia digital ICU
ECMO (Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation)
Philips EPIQ Echocardiography machines for 2D and live 3D imaging
Trans-Oesophageal Echocardiography with Doppler, Colour Doppler modalities
Dobutamine stress test for physically disabled patients
Intra-operative trans-oesophageal ECHO / Doppler / Colour-flow Doppler
Philips 256 Slice iCT scan
Wide Bore 3.0 Tesla MRI cardiac studies
Philips Astonish True Flight Select PET-CT with Time Of Flight technology
GE SPECT-CT Optima NM 640 Gamma Camera

Outpatient Services

The Centre of Excellence in Cardiac Sciences at Aster Medcity offers a wide range of outpatient services for detection and treatment of complex heart diseases and disorders. This includes:

Cardiac structural/functional evaluation including advanced imaging
Heart Failure Clinic
Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinic
2D / Live 3D Echocardiography
Colour Doppler imaging
Tissue Doppler imaging
Strain Quantification
Trans-Esophageal Echocardiography including live 3D TEE
24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
24-hour ECG monitoring (Holter monitoring)
Cardiac stress tests including Tread Mill Test, Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography, Head Up Tilt Test (HUTT)

Diagnostics for Cardiac Surgery
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)
  • Echocardiogram
  • Angiogram Imaging Tests:
    • Chest X-Ray
    • CT Scan
    • MRI Scans.
  • Thoracoscopy
  • Lung / Lymph Node Biopsy.
Non Invasive Testing facilities

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) : EKG is an essential diagnostic tool used in cardiology to detect heart conditions and abnormalities. It is a non-invasive and painless procedure that visualizes the heart's electrical activity. Interpretation of an EKG requires specialized training and expertise, and the results can provide valuable information about heart health. It records the heart's electrical activity and produces a visual representation of the heart's rhythm. The EKG machine is composed of electrodes placed on the patient's chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electromagnetic impulses generated by the heart and transmit them to the EKG machine. This displays the information on a graph.


Want to find out more about the treatment? The answer to your questions can be found below.

What is a heart attack?

In some patients, the blood supply to a part of the heart muscle stops suddenly. This happens most often due to the formation of a clot inside one of the three coronary arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle. When this happens, the heart muscle that receives blood from the respective coronary artery gets damaged. This is termed as a heart attack.
It is advised to quickly visit the Best Cardiology Hospital in Bangalore nearby to get treated by a cardiologist.

Are there different types of heart attacks? If so, what are they?

Based on the variation in the ECG during a heart attack, doctors recognize two types of heart attacks. ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Non-ST-elevation Myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). STEMI and NSTEMI differ not only in the variation in the ECG but also in their severity. In general, STEMI is more likely to be immediately fatal or disabling than NSTEMI. Consequently, STEMI requires more urgent treatment than NSTEMI in most instances. However, this is just a thumb rule: Some NSTEMIs can be equally ominous and may require emergency treatment just like STEMI.

What are the specific tests required to diagnose heart disease?

Patients suspected to have a heart attack require to undergo ECG or electrocardiogram immediately. If the initial ECG is not diagnostic but the symptoms and signs are highly suggestive of a heart attack, repeating the ECG after 30-60 minutes and performing a blood test to detect high levels of cardiac enzymes such as Cardiac Troponins or CK-MB are additionally useful. Old heart attacks are often diagnosed based on ECG or Echocardiography.

What time of the day does one usually get a heart attack?

Heart attacks can occur at any time of the day. However, due to various neuro-hormonal variations associated with the circadian rhythm, some clustering of heart attacks is noted in the mornings between 6 am and 12 noon. Some physicians have noted more heart attacks in the wee hours, i.e., between 3 and 6 am.

What are the common causes of heart disease?

Various risk factors increase the chances of a person having a heart attack. Smoking, High Blood pressure, Diabetes. physical inactivity, high cholesterol levels, obesity, and poor diet are important risk factors. These can be potentially controlled to reduce heart attack risk. Therefore, these are termed Modifiable Risk factors.
Older age, male sex, family history, Post-menopausal state in women are factors that can increase heart attack risk but cannot be altered. These are called non-modifiable risk factors.
South Asians appear to have a very high risk of having heart attacks at a younger age, compared to Caucasians and Asians such as Japanese.

How are heart attacks treated?

As soon as a diagnosis of heart attack is made, blood-thinning medications (Aspirin, Clopidogrel are common ones) are administered. The definitive treatment is Coronary angiography followed by primary coronary angioplasty to restore blood flow in the coronary artery causing the attack.

However, if for some reason, angioplasty cannot be performed, certain medicines (thrombolytic drugs, or clot busters) are administered in the form of injections. Primary Angioplasty is a more effective and safer form of treatment for a heart attack, but in some circumstances (e.g., remote areas) these drugs can be life-saving.

What is Coronary Angioplasty?

Coronary angioplasty is a procedure performed to widen narrow or blocked sections of the coronary vessels thereby restoring the blood flow. A thin balloon is inserted into the coronary artery and inflated at the site of the block to widen the narrowed artery. This makes a way for the opening of the blockages. A stent is generally then placed to prevent future blockages.

What is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) Surgery?

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) is a procedure where a surgeon makes new routes (bypass) around blocked or narrowed coronary arteries with one or more grafts allowing increased blood flow to the vessel past the blockage. These grafts are typically healthy blood vessels from the chest, arm, or leg of the patient.

What are the precautions to be taken post a heart surgery or angioplasty?

It is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle post a heart surgery includes: Quit smoking. Eat a healthy diet that is low in saturated fat. Lower your cholesterol levels. Try to maintain a healthy weight. Exercise regularly. Control other conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure. Do not skip any medications prescribed by your doctor.

What is Normal blood pressure?

Normal blood pressure is defined as blood pressure of 120 mmHg systolic, 80 mmHg diastolic. Blood pressure of 140/90 or higher is termed as hypertension.

Why is high blood pressure dangerous?

Higher the blood pressure, higher is the risk of damage to the heart and blood vessels in major organs such as the kidney and brain.

Uncontrolled hypertension can lead to an enlargement of the heart, heart attack, and eventually heart failure. Hypertension can also lead to blindness, stroke, and kidney failure.

What is heart failure?

Heart failure is a condition in which your heart is not pumping normally and is unable to deliver oxygen-rich blood throughout the body. It does not mean the heart has stopped working. It means that it is working at lower efficiency. The heart muscle is either too weak and cannot pump blood to the rest of the body with enough force (systolic failure) and/or has trouble relaxing and becomes stiff (diastolic failure). This causes a build-up of fluid (congestion) in the lungs, feet, and other body tissues. This generally develops slowly but can also present very rapidly.

Is there a link between blood sugar and heart attack?

Anything in excess or deficiency is a problem. The same applies to blood sugar. High blood sugar levels can increase the risk of heart diseases like heart attack and heart failure. Low blood sugar (Hypoglycaemia) can precipitate arrhythmias and heart attacks. Long term uncontrolled blood sugar can lead to blocks in the peripheral arteries like in the brain, legs, and abdomen.

What is heart attack?

A heart attack occurs when a blood clot blocks blood flow to the heart. It is also called Myocardial Infarction (MI) and is a medical emergency treated without delay.

What are the common causes of heart disease?

High-risk factors are:

  • Smoking
  • Having high blood pressure
  • Physical Inactivity
  • High cholesterol
  • High levels of lipoprotein
  • Diabetes
  • Excessive use of alcohol or caffeine
  • Heart problem present at birth.

How bad is alcohol for the heart?

Excessive alcohol intake can lead to high blood pressure, heart failure or stroke. Excessive drinking can also contribute to a disorder that affects the heart muscle.

Alcohol can contribute to obesity and the long list of health problems that can go along with it.

How can you prevent blood pressure?

Lead an active lifestyle, Exercise regularly, Keep yourself at a healthy weight and avoid drinking alcohol and smoking.

Can a bifurcation lesion be treated with a stent?

Bifurcation lesions are common, but there are increased risks of restenosis. However, a conventional stent can help treat a bifurcation lesion but it involves some complications. An upfront 2-stent approach or bifurcation lesion angioplasty should be considered in the blockage of an artery that supplies a larger area of the heart.

What are the complications of bifurcation lesion angioplasty?

Most bifurcation lesion angioplasties are successful and do not have any complications. Although in rare cases, there can be a risk of developing

l In-stent restenosis

l Stent thrombosis

How long do the results of bifurcation lesion angioplasty last?

All kinds of stents used in angioplasty are made to be permanent. These will continue to keep your blood artery open. However, stents don't treat the underlying cause of atherosclerosis. You will need different treatments to prevent artery narrowing in the future.

Does bifurcation lesion angioplasty hurt?

You won't feel significant pain during bifurcation lesion angioplasty. However, you may have slight discomfort when the needle punctures the artery. Slight pain is felt at the time of removal of the sheath.

Who should not undergo stress tests and should rely on rest ECG?

The following groups should avoid undergoing a stress test-

  • People who have coronary heart disease and are doing well on medical therapy

  • There is no history of risk factors for coronary heart disease.

  • People with a low risk of developing heart disease, including people who do not smoke, are physically active and eat a healthy diet.

  • People with aortic dissection, endocarditis, recent heart attack, severe aortic stenosis, and chest pain.

How long does it take for a stress test?

If one is undergoing a basic stress test, the exercise lasts about 10 to 15 minutes. Additional time is necessary for the patient to get ready to exercise and recover afterward.

How is stress testing different in people who cannot exercise?

The steps are usually the same as an exercise stress test. Additionally, one may lie on a table before and after exercising for an echocardiogram.

What does a normal stress test mean?

If the tests are normal, it means that the heart is pumping blood as it should and that there is adequate blood flow.

What are some types of cyanotic congenital heart diseases?

Some types of CCHDs are:

l Ebstein anomaly

l Hypoplastic left heart

l Pulmonary atresia

l Tetralogy of Fallot

l Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

l Transposition of the great vessels

l Tricuspid atresia

l Truncus arteriosus

Which genetic disorders are predisposing factors for developing CHD?

Genetic disorders like DiGeorge syndrome, Down syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Edwards syndrome, Trisomy 13, and Turner syndrome can increase the chances of a child having CHD.

Which is the most common genetic cause of congenital heart disease?

Down’s syndrome is found to be the most common genetic cause of CHD.

Is it possible to have an everyday life with congenital heart disease?

A lot of people with CHD live almost everyday lives, some of them live with little to no issues, and some may need medical help for the rest of their lives.

What lifestyle changes are advised for children with congenital heart disease?

Children with severe CHD need medical supervision all around the clock. Kids with Non-serious CHD may need to limit exercise and playtime and take extra calories to maintain good health.

How should I prepare for the Doppler test?

Preparations required for the Doppler study depend on the type of ultrasound and the reason for the test. It includes

  • Fasting for a couple of hours before the Doppler test
  • Quit smoking or anything with nicotine for at least two hours before the Doppler test

Does the Doppler study hurt?

Ultrasound does not need any injectable dyes and does not use any radiation like an X-ray. Thus, Doppler study is a painless and safest test. This non-invasive procedure only involves placing a small handheld device called a transducer on your skin to capture the sound waves.

What is the cost of a Doppler study?

The price for a Doppler study varies depending on its type. In India, the Doppler study ranges from INR 3,000 to 12,000.

Why is it called Doppler?

The Doppler study is named after a 19th-century physicist, Christian Doppler. This physicist discovered the "Doppler effect," a way to measure sound waves reflected by moving objects. Hence, the name Doppler study.

Can anyone have a Doppler study?

Yes, Doppler studies are used for people of all ages, from infants to older people, depending on the medical condition being investigated.

How can heart attack be prevented?

There are a few non-modifiable factors, like family history, age, and sex, that cannot be reversed. However, there are modifiable factors like having an active lifestyle and eating a healthy diet can help keep your heart healthy and prevent heart attack.

How much time does it take for one to recover after a heart attack?

In general, one may get relief from the symptoms of heart attack after receiving treatment. However, one may experience some weakness and fatigue during hospital stay. The average hospital stay for a patient is usually 4–5 days.

Can stress cause a heart attack?

Stress can lead to rise in blood pressure levels, which can pose risk for heart attack and stroke.

Do heart attacks happen suddenly?

Heart attacks can happen suddenly as well as slowly and vary in the degree of intensity. Most of them start slowly with mild symptoms and progress slowly.

What kind of structural heart disease is more prevalent?

Most typical forms of structural heart disease include: 

  • Aortic valve conditions

  • Congenital heart disorders like ventricular and atrial septal defects

  • Heart muscle hypertrophy

Can atrial septal defects (ASDs) be repaired using structural interventions?

Yes. ASDs can be closed using devices inserted through catheters, avoiding the need for open-heart surgery.

In whom structural heart interventions are performed?

Structural heart interventions are performed in those who:

  • Have structural abnormalities
  • Are at high risk for cardiac surgery 
  • Prefer minimally invasive procedures

How to prepare for a structural heart intervention?

Your surgeon and their team provide the instructions for preparing for structural heart intervention. It can include fasting before the procedure. Follow all the advice on medications and other preparations given by your doctor.

Can structural heart interventions be repeated?

In some cases, yes. However, the decision would depend on the specific circumstances and the patient's health.  

What post-operative instructions must I follow after a cryoablation procedure?

For major cryoablation surgeries, the patient cannot lift anything for 72 hours and is restricted from other physical activities (swimming, hot tubs, running, jogging, gym) for at least 15 to 20 days.

Does cryoablation cure cancer?

Cryoablation is one of the several treatment approaches for noncancerous lesions or non-metastasizing cancer cells. It is an effective outpatient therapy for cancer.

Do damaged nerves grow back after the cryoablation procedure?

Typically, in most cases, the nerves grow back within 3 to 6 months.

Which doctors perform cryoablation procedures?

Cryoablation procedures are performed by specially trained interventional radiologists and an expert panel of doctors experienced in the field of the body part being treated.

What are some of the main benefits of doing cryoablation surgery?

  • Cryoablation surgery is minimally invasive and has a lower recuperation period.
  • It spares a lot of the healthy tissue surrounding diseased cells.
  • It is a very effective procedure for vital organs.
  • It can be repeated several times.

Is cryoablation painful?

Almost all cryoablation procedures use numbing agents and anesthesia to help with the treatment. The patient will feel no pain during the procedure.

How long does a cryoablation procedure last?

The duration of a cryosurgery depends on the part of the body being treated. Typically, it requires 1 to 4 hours for a cryoablation procedure.

 What causes heart valve diseases?

The causes of heart valve disease are:

  • Congenital defects

  • Infections like rheumatic fever and infective endocarditis 

  • Age-related degeneration or calcification 

  • Certain medical conditions

What is the difference between heart valve repair vs. replacement?

In heart valve repair, the surgeon fixes the existing valve. In heart valve replacement, the diseased valve is replaced with an artificial valve.

What is the recovery time after heart valve surgery?

It takes about two months to recover from heart valve surgery. Recovery times vary and can be shorter in the case of minimally invasive surgeries. However, most surgeries often need a hospital stay, rest, and rehabilitation.

How long does a replaced valve last?

The longevity of a replaced valve varies. Mechanical valves may last longer but require lifelong blood thinners. Biological valves have a limited lifespan but may not require blood thinners.

Can I lead a normal life after heart valve surgery?

Yes. Many people resume their normal activities and quality of life after recovery. Your doctor will guide you on maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

Will a Cardiologist help manage side effects during treatment?

A cardiologist can help manage sidе effects during trеatmеnt. Side effects can be caused by the mеdication or the procedure itsеlf. If you reside in Kochi, thе cardiologist will work with you to dеtеrminе thе bеst way to manage thе side effects and minimisе thеir impact on your quality of lifе.

How do cardiologists decide if surgery is necessary?

Cardiologists, like those across the world, usе a variety of tools to determine if surgery is necessary. Thеsе can include diagnostic tests such as echocardiograms, cardiac catheterisation, stress tests, and other imaging studies. Thеy will also consider your medical history, specific condition, overall health, and the severity of your symptoms. In some cases, they may consult with cardiac surgeons to ensure all treatmеnt options, including surgеry, are thoroughly considered.

How should I prepare for my first visit to a Cardiologist?

Whеn prеparing for your first visit to a cardiologist, it is hеlpful to bring a list of currеnt mеdications, any relevant medical rеcords or tеst rеsults, your idеntification, and  hеalth insurancе information. Additionally, you might want to notе down any symptoms or concerns you hаvе bееn еxpеriеncing. It's also good to bе prеparеd to discuss your mеdical history and lifеstylе factors such as diеt, еxеrcisе, and smoking habits. 

Who is a Cardiologist and what do they do?

A cardiologist is a medical doctor with specialised training and skill in finding, treating, and preventing diseases of the heart and blood vessels, which are collectively known as the cardiovascular system. When you visit a cardiologist, here is what typically happens:

1. Assessment:

- They conduct a thorough medical assessment that includes a review of your health history, physical examination, and may also inquire about your lifestyle to identify risk factors.

2. Diagnostic Testing: Cardiologists often utilise diagnostic tests to identify heart issues, such as:

- Electrocardiogram (EKG/ECG): To record the electrical activity of the heart.

- Echocardiogram: To create an image of the heart using sound waves, assessing heart function and structure.

- Stress tests: To measure the heart's performance and limitations under physical stress.

- Cardiac catheterization: To examine how the heart is functioning and to collect biopsies or blood samples from the heart.

- CT/MRI scans: To get detailed images of the heart and its surrounding structures.

3. Treatment: Depending on the diagnosis, treatment might include:

- Lifestyle advice and management: Diet, exercise, and other lifestyle factors.

- Medications: Prescribing drugs for high blood pressure, cholesterol, heart rhythm issues, or other heart-related concerns.

- Invasive procedures: Such as angioplasty to open clogged arteries, or surgical management, like heart valve repair or replacement and coronary artery bypass surgery.

4. Follow-Up Care:

- Cardiologists also provide ongoing care for chronic conditions and post-operative recovery which may include regular check-ups, medication adjustments, and lifestyle modification recommendations.

If you nееd spеcific rеcommеndations for Cardiologists in Kochi, it is bеst to check our website.


Are heart attacks hereditary or can they be age-dependent?

Family history plays an important role in the causation of heart attacks. The risk of a heart attack in a person more than doubles if a first-degree relative (parents, siblings, or children) has had a heart attack in the past.
While there are exceptions, heart attacks are generally seen in older adults. The typical age for a man to have a heart attack is 55 years and above and for a woman it is 65 years and above.
When heart attacks are seen in men younger than 55 years and women younger than 65 years it is termed as Premature Heart Attack or Premature Coronary artery disease.
In India, during the last two decades, more and more adults who are younger have been noted to have heart attacks. Studies have shown that between 15-22% of all heart attacks are seen in adults younger than 40 years of age.

Do all types of heart attacks have the same symptoms?

Of course not. Symptoms of heart attack can vary from case to case. The commonest symptom of a heart attack is chest pain. This is seen in about 70% of all heart attack patients. The remainder can present with breathlessness, arm or back pain, cold sweats, loss of consciousness, or palpitations. Some patients may have no symptoms at all and are said to have a Silent Heart attack.
If you experience any of these symptoms, then immediately consult the Best Cardiologist in Bangalore.

How do a heart attack and stroke differ?

A lot of people use these terms interchangeably.
Heart attack refers to damage to the heart muscle. Stroke refers to paralysis of limbs or face or any other neurological function due to damage to the brain resulting from clotting or bleeding in the blood vessels of the brain. They are clinically different and the terms should ideally not be interchanged.

What should I do if I have symptoms suspicious of a heart attack?

First, seek help. Make any person in proximity aware of your situation. The most important step to ensure a safe outcome in a heart attack is to see that you reach a hospital with appropriate facilities as soon as possible. It is a good practice to be aware of the hospitals around you and the facilities they provide. When someone has chest pain or other symptoms suggestive of a heart attack, the immediate first aid should be to take 350 mg of the soluble form of Aspirin (common trade names Disprin or Aspisol in India). Ideally, the tablet should be chewed because the medicine is absorbed from the mucosal membrane of the oral cavity and starts to act immediately. If the patient cannot chew the tablet for some reason, the tablet can be dispersed in a small quantity of water and taken orally. If I see someone who is having a heart attack, what can I do to ensure he survives till help arrives? Call the nearest hospital with cardiac facilities as soon as you recognise that someone around you might be having an ongoing attack. Shift the person to a comfortable position and reassure them. If possible, give them an Aspirin tablet to chew. While waiting for help to arrive, monitor their breathing and pulse. If they lose consciousness, initiate Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

How can I reduce my risk of developing heart disease?

A disciplined lifestyle would not only take care of the heart but also keep other diseases at bay. The key changes are
Quit smoking
Exercise regularly
Maintain a healthy weight
Control blood pressure and diabetes well
Keep cholesterol levels in check
Manage stress

What is Coronary Angiography?

It is a procedure to detect blockages in the blood vessels of the heart. A thin hollow tube or catheter is inserted via the artery of the forearm or the thigh. Through this catheter, a special contrast dye is injected into the coronary arteries and X-ray images are obtained to visualize the blood flow in the coronary arteries.

Can a stent get blocked again? Is it possible to insert another stent in the same place?

Yes. In about 5-10% of patients, especially those who are not on medication, have uncontrolled diabetes, develop kidney failure, or continue to smoke, stents can show narrowing (restenosis). If a disciplined lifestyle is not followed, new blockages can appear in other areas of the vessels too.
Stent restenosis can be treated by balloon angioplasty, a second stent, drug-coated balloons, or by Bypass surgery.

Is bypass surgery a permanent solution for heart blocks?

No treatment for coronary blocks can be considered a permanent solution. A small number of patients can have the failure of bypass surgery very early. In a majority, Bypass surgeries can help to feel better and prolong life for over 10-15 years. Again, lifestyle and adherence to medical advice after bypass surgery are of paramount importance in keeping the procedure durable. Visit Best Heart Hospital in Bangalore to avail of advanced heart surgeries or procedures.

What are the various types of heart diseases?

There are various types of disorders related to the heart.
Congenital heart disease is a defect of the heart which are present since birth.
Arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythm or irregular heartbeat affecting the electrical conduction.
Coronary artery disease is caused by the narrowing of the coronary arteries leading to the decreased blood supply to the heart.
This can potentially lead to angina, heart attacks, weakening of the heart muscle, or sudden death.
Cardiomyopathy refers to diseases affecting the heart muscle. Some types of cardiomyopathy are genetic, while others occur because of an infection or reasons that are less well understood.
Heart failure happens when the heart is not properly pumping blood throughout the body. In this condition often the heart's pumping capacity is reduced.
Valvular heart disease affects how the valves function to regulate blood flow in and out of the heart chambers.
Hypertension is a condition in which the blood vessels have persistently increased pressure, putting them under increased stress. It is often known as high or raised blood pressure.
Pericardial diseases affect the outer layer (pericardium) of the heart. It can be affected by a variety of conditions that include inflammation (pericarditis), stiffness (constrictive pericarditis), and fluid accumulation (pericardial effusion).

What causes high BP or hypertension?

The cause of high blood pressure is unclear in most people. However, older age, physical inactivity, poor diet, obesity, kidney problems, alcohol use, certain birth control pills, and persistent stress can all contribute to the development of hypertension.

People with high blood pressure usually have no signs when their blood pressure is excessively high, or if they have already had high blood pressure.

How to prevent high blood pressure?

High blood pressure can be prevented and controlled by maintaining a healthy diet.
Reduce your salt intake. Increase the intake of vegetables and fruits. Avoid saturated fats.
Engage yourself in moderate exercises. Aim for a minimum of thirty minutes of aerobic activity, such as brisk walks for five days a week.
Avoid and stop smoking and other tobacco products and avoid alcohol abuse.
Reduce stress levels by engaging with fun activities and meditation.
If advised medications, please take them regularly.
Does erratic sleep over the long run lead to a potential heart attack? Are the professionals working night shifts at a higher risk of a heart attack?

Yes. Every individual needs at least 6-8 hours of undisturbed sleep. Studies have shown that working night shift meddles with the body’s circadian rhythm, putting it under stress and making it more susceptible to heart problems like irregular heartbeats and heart attack.

What is valvular heart disease?

The heart’s valves keep blood flowing through the heart in the right direction. But a range of conditions can result in valvular damage. Valves may narrow (stenosis), not close properly (prolapse) or leak (regurgitation or insufficiency). This can cause your body to be disrupted by the blood flow through your heart.

Is there a link between obesity and heart disease?

Yes. Being overweight and obese can cause a high risk of multiple heart problems. It can lead to high blood pressure. Excess weight also increases the chance of atherosclerosis (cholesterol deposits in the arteries causing blocks), abnormal heart rhythms, heart attacks and significantly increases the risk of heart failure.

What are the symptoms of a heart attack?

Chest pain :

  • This symptom can be mild and feel like discomfort or heaviness
  • Pain on left arm and shoulder, neck, jaw, back or down toward your waist
  • Shortness of breath or trouble breathing
  • Nausea or stomach discomfort
  • Anxiety
  • Sweating
  • Feeling lightheaded, dizzy, or passing out.

What is Angioplasty?

Procedure to improve blood flow in blood vessels that have become narrow or blocked.

What is high blood pressure?

High blood pressure is a common condition that affects the body's arteries. It is also called hypertension. Normal pressure is 120/80 or lower.

When to see a cardiologist?

If you notice a pattern of heart disease, chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations or dizziness including high cholesterol and high blood pressure, take action and get checked by a cardiologist.

Does bifurcation lesion angioplasty have the risk of side branch closure?

Well, contemporary bifurcation angioplasty using expert imaging techniques carries a 99% success rate. However, there can be a chance of losing a side branch in 1% of cases. In addition, in 3-6% of cases, there can be a risk of repeat narrowing after nine months.

What are the precautions to be taken after bifurcation lesion angioplasty?

Precautions after bifurcation lesion angioplasty are similar to those after minimally invasive cardiac procedures.
l Walking short distances on a flat surface only.
l Limiting using stairs for a few days.
l Avoiding working in yards, driving, squatting, carrying heavy objects, or playing sports until your cardiologist tells you it is safe.

Can a 100% blocked artery be treated with bifurcation lesion angioplasty?

Usually, people develop symptoms when the artery is blocked by 70% or more. These kinds of blocks, including bifurcation blocks, can be successfully treated.

How many days of hospital stay is needed for bifurcation lesion angioplasty?

Your cardiologist will decide the precise number of days for hospital stay after assessing your condition. However, be prepared for a minimum two-day hospital stay.

Is it safe to undergo cardiac stress testing?

Exercise stress tests are safe as long as you do not have any contraindications to the test. There are very few people who face complications. Trained personnel are present in the rare event that you have a complication. The performance, data, and symptoms are assessed throughout the tests, and immediate care is taken to prevent unwanted consequences.

What should women know about exercise stress testing?

Females experience different heart diseases than males. Healthcare providers generally decide on stress testing and imaging methods during stress based on sex and age.

What happens after a heart stress test?

After completing the test, the healthcare provider monitors the symptoms, heart rate, blood pressure, and ECG until it returns to normal. This takes approximately 15 minutes.

What happens if the tests are abnormal?

Abnormal tests may mean that you have an underlying cardiac condition—additional tests like cardiac catheterization, CT coronary angiography, nuclear stress test, and stress echocardiogram.

Is atrial septal defect a cyanotic congenital heart disease?

The atrial septal defect does not change blood oxygen levels and is a non-cyanotic congenital heart condition.

Which is the most common congenital heart disease?

A ventricular septal defect is currently the most common CHD.

How common are CHDs? 

As per data, almost 1% of all live births suffer from Congenital heart disease

What are the survival statistics for children with congenital heart disorders? 

According to government data, almost 95% of children born with a non-serious congenital heart disorder live up to at least 18 years of age.

Do I need to see a doctor regularly, even with a mild CHD?

As per standard procedure, all adults and children with any CHD need to see a cardiologist/ heart specialist regularly, depending on the severity of disease.

How long does it take for a Doppler study?

The duration of the study can vary based on the specific body part being examined and the complexity of the test. However, most Doppler studies take 30 to 60 minutes to complete.

When will I get my Doppler test results?

The time duration for Doppler test results may vary in different hospitals. In Aster Hospitals, you will be receiving the results immediately.

How accurate are Doppler study results?

Doppler study results yield good absolute accuracy when suitably designed equipment is used. The chances of systematic errors are less than 6%.

Who performs Doppler ultrasound?

Only the Cardiac Doppler is done by the Cardiologist, rest of all the Dopplers are done by Radiologists.

Are there any risks associated with Doppler studies?

Doppler's studies are safe with no visible or internal side-effects on the patient.

What are complications of heart attack?

Arrhythmias, heart failures, heart valve problems, cardiac arrest, depression, and anxiety are some of the complications associated with heart attack. Sometimes, mechanical complications like ventricular defects and free wall rupture can occur.

How does a heart attack feel?

Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the chest and last for more than a few minutes. It can lead to a feeling of uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, and fullness.

Can an ECG detect a heart attack?

ECG records the electrical impulses generated by the heart. It helps diagnose a heart attack. It also helps to diagnose the type of heart attack that one may be having. This, in turn, will help us determine the treatment.

How long does a heart attack last?

Heart attacks last for 2–5 minutes. They can also last for 20 minutes if there is a complete blockage.

How do doctors perform structural heart interventions?

Most structural heart interventions are minimally invasive procedures. These involve accessing the heart through small incisions or catheters inserted through blood vessels.  

Are there risks associated with structural heart interventions?

Like most cardiac medical procedures, there are few risks involved in structural heart interventions. However, these interventions generally have a lower risk profile than open-heart surgery. You can discuss in detail regarding the risks with your healthcare provider. 

What is recovery like after a structural heart intervention?

Recovery times after structural heart interventions vary. However, compared to open heart surgeries, these have:

  • Shorter hospital stays  
  • Quicker return to routine activities 
  • Fewer chances of complications 

Is general anesthesia used for all structural heart interventions?

Yes, in certain procedures. Some interventions can be performed under conscious sedation, while others may require general anesthesia.

Can structural heart problems reoccur after surgery?

Yes, in some cases, structural heart problems can reoccur after they have been corrected through interventions. The likelihood of recurrence depends on factors such as:

  • Type of specific heart condition

  • Type of intervention performed

  • Patient's overall health

  • Underlying contributing factors

What happens to diseased cells after a cryoablation procedure?

Cryoablation freezes the cells, which later die and are gradually absorbed by the body.

What is the general temperature at which cryotherapy is done?

Most cryoablation procedures are also formed at temperatures ranging from -35°C to -75°C. Liquid nitrogen procedures were optimal at -174°C -185°C.

What are some of the main benefits of doing cryoablation surgery?

  • Cryoablation surgery is minimally invasive and has a lower recuperation period.

  • It spares a lot of the healthy tissue surrounding diseased cells.

  • It is a very effective procedure for vital organs.

  • It can be repeated several times.

Do damaged nerves grow back after the cryoablation procedure?

Typically, in most cases, the nerves grow back within 3 to 6 months.

Which doctors perform cryoablation procedures?

Cryoablation procedures are performed by specially trained interventional radiologists and an expert panel of doctors experienced in the field of the body part being treated.

What is the approximate success rate for cryoablation procedures in kidney cancer?

Cryoablation success rates in kidney treatment are an impressive 100% for 5 years and 96% for recurrence. 

What are the common types of heart valve diseases?

Common types of heart valve diseases include: 

  • Aortic stenosis

  • Mitral regurgitation

  • Mitral stenosis

  • Tricuspid regurgitation

How are heart valve diseases diagnosed?

During the physical examination, your doctor may find signs of heart valve disease, like a murmur, enlarged heart, or swollen ankles.
However, precise diagnosis can be made with the help of:

  • Chest X-ray 

  • Cardiac catheterization

  • Echocardiograms

  • Electrocardiograms (ECGs)

  • Imaging tests like MRI

  • Transesophageal echocardiogram

  • Exercise stress echocardiogram

What are transcatheter procedures for heart valve diseases?

Transcatheter approaches involve inserting a new valve through a catheter. This can help avoid open-heart surgery.

Can heart valve diseases recur after treatment?

In some cases, yes. Regular follow-up with a cardiologist is crucial to monitor valve function.

Do I need to take medication after surgery?

Depending on the type of surgery and valve used, you may need blood thinners or medications to prevent infection or manage symptoms.

How does a Cardiologist decide on a treatment plan?

A Cardiologist determines a treatment plan by conducting a thorough assessment of a patient's health, which typically includes medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as ECG, echocardiogram, or stress tests. Basеd on the results, the Cardiologist may recommend lifestyle changes, medications, or interventions like angioplasty or bypass surgery.

A Cardiologist would follow similar protocols but also take into account regional factors, the prevalence of specific heart conditions, and the patient's individual health circumstances. If you live in Kochi, for personalised advice and treatment plan, it is important to consult with a qualified cardiologist.

What are the most common conditions that a Cardiologist treats?

Cardiologists are adept at treating a wide range of heart-related conditions. Here are some of the most common conditions that cardiologists are involved with, alongside the typical treatments they may administer or recommend for each:

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD):

- Health Conditions: Plaque buildup in the coronary arteries causing reduced blood flow to the heart.

- Treatments: Lifestyle changes, medications (like aspirin, beta-blockers, or statins), angioplasty with stent placement, and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction):

- Health Conditions: Blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, causing tissue damage.

- Treatments: Emergency intervention with angioplasty and stenting, use of clot-dissolving medications, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, and long-term lifestyle modification.

Heart Failure:

- Health Conditions: The heart’s inability to pump blood effectively.

- Treatments: Medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers, diuretics, and in advanced cases, devices like pacemakers or ventricular assist devices (VADs), and possibly heart transplantation.

Arrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation):

- Health Conditions: Abnormal heart rhythms.

- Treatments: Medication, electrical cardioversion, catheter ablation, pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs).

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy:

- Health Conditions: Thickened heart muscle that can impair the heart's ability to pump blood.

- Treatments: Lifestyle changes, medications, surgical myectomy, alcohol septal ablation, and use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for preventing sudden cardiac death.

Congenital Heart Disease:

- Health Conditions: Malformations of the heart present since birth.

- Treatments: Depends on the specific anomaly; may include medication, catheter-based procedures, or heart surgery.

Valvular Heart Disease:

- Health Conditions: Malfunction of one or more of the heart valves that may involve stenosis or regurgitation.

- Treatments: Medication, balloon valvuloplasty, valve repair, or valve replacement surgery.

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure):

- Health Conditions: Chronic condition where the force of blood against artery walls is too high.

- Treatments: Lifestyle interventions, medications such as diuretics, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, calcium channel blockers.

What question you should ask a Cardiologist?

When consulting a Cardiologist, it is helpful to ask questions such as:

What is my current hеart health status, and what specific factors should I bе aware of?

What lifestyle changes or habits should I adopt to improvе my health?

What medications, if any, are necessary, and what are their potential side effects?

What diagnostic tests or procedures do you recommend, and how will they help assess my hеart health?

If a procedurе or surgery is suggested, what are the risks and bеnеfits, and what altеrnativеs arе available?

Arе there specific considerations or local factors in Kochi that might affect my trеatment?

When should I consider seeing a Cardiologist?

You should consider seeing a cardiologist if you have risk factors for heart diseases such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, or a family history of heart disease. Additionally, if you experience symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, dizziness, or if you have been referred by your primary care physician due to a concern about your heart health, it would be advisable to schedule an appointment with a cardiologist.

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