The human nervous system can be classified into two types: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS comprises the nerves of the brain and the spinal cord, while the PNS includes all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, such as those in the legs, arms, chest, etc. Their functions include sensing sensations, controlling various organ functions, and facilitating movement.
When peripheral nerves are damaged, it can lead to symptoms like chronic pain, weakness, numbness, muscle twitching, loss of balance, etc. In such cases, surgery may be necessary, known as peripheral nerve surgery. The most common indications for peripheral nerve surgery include:
- Nerve Compression: This involves the compression of nerves in a specific area, and surgery helps release the pressure on the affected nerve. For example, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a condition that causes numbness, tingling, and sometimes pain in the hand and fingers due to the compression of the median nerve.
- Nerve Injuries: Accidents and injuries can damage nerve tissues. In cases of severe nerve damage or loss, reconstructive surgery may be performed to restore function. This can involve nerve grafts, nerve transfers, or other advanced techniques.
- Tumor Removal: Tumors that compress or damage peripheral nerves may necessitate surgical removal.