Traumatic brain injury is a condition that occurs when the brain is damaged due to a sudden impact or force on the head. This can happen due to car accidents, falls, gunshot wounds, domestic violence, child abuse, sports injuries and explosive blasts.
Symptoms can vary depending on the severity of the injury. Common symptoms include:
- Confusion or feeling dazed
- Nausea or vomiting
- Dizziness or loss of balance
- Memory problems
- Sensitivity to light or noise
Moderate to Severe TBI
- Loss of consciousness (for varying durations)
- Persistent or worsening headache
- Seizures or convulsions
- Slurred speech
- Weakness or numbness in the extremities
- Coordination problems
- Confusion or agitation
TBI can also increase the risk of other brain conditions such as anxiety, depression, Alzheimer’s disease, etc. It may lead to coma or death.
Diagnosis involves medical evaluation, blood tests, imaging tests like MRI and CT scans, and neurological assessments. Management depends on the severity of the injury. For mild TBI, painkillers along with physical and mental rest are advised. For a moderate or severe TBI, immediate medical attention is crucial. Medications may be prescribed for pain, seizures, blood clot prevention, alertness, and mental health, tailored to aid recovery and manage challenges. Surgery may be needed to relieve pressure, remove debris or blood clots, repair skull fractures, or place monitors in the brain. After surgery, rehabilitation focuses on improving daily activities with therapies like physical, occupational, and speech therapy, as well as psychological support for emotional well-being.