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Hip Replacement

Whether you have just begun exploring treatment options or have already decided to undergo hip replacement surgery, this information will help you understand the benefits and limitations of total hip replacement. You can understand how a normal hip works, the causes of hip pain, what to expect from hip replacement surgery, and what exercises and activities will help restore your mobility and strength, and enable you to return to everyday activities. 

If your hip has been damaged by arthritis, a fracture, or other conditions, common activities such as walking or getting in and out of a chair may be painful and difficult. Your hip may be stiff, and it may be hard to put on your shoes and socks. You may even feel uncomfortable while resting. If medications, changes in your everyday activities, and the use of walking supports do not adequately help your symptoms, you may consider hip replacement surgery. 

Hip replacement surgery is a safe and effective procedure that can relieve your pain, increase motion, and help you get back to enjoying normal, everyday activities. First performed in 1960, hip replacement surgery is one of the most successful operations in all of medicine. Since 1960, improvements in joint replacement surgical techniques and technology have greatly increased the effectiveness of total hip replacement. 

Anatomy of the Hip

The hip is a ball-and-socket joint and is one of the body's largest joints. The socket is formed by the acetabulum, which is part of the large pelvis bone. The ball is the femoral head, which is the upper end of the femur (thighbone). The bone surfaces of the ball and socket are covered with articular cartilage, a smooth tissue that cushions the ends of the bones and enables them to move easily. 

A thin tissue called synovial membrane surrounds the hip joint. In a healthy hip, this membrane makes a small amount of fluid that lubricates the cartilage and eliminates almost all friction during hip movement. Stability to the joint is provided by Bands of tissue called ligaments (the hip capsule) which connect the ball to the socket. 

Common Causes of Hip Pain 

The most common cause of chronic hip pain and disability is arthritis. Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and traumatic arthritis are the most common forms of this disease. 

  • Osteoarthritis: This is an age-related "wear and tear" type of arthritis. It usually occurs in people 50 years of age and older and often in individuals with a family history of arthritis. The cartilage cushioning the bones of the hip wears away. The bones then rub against each other, causing hip pain and stiffness. Osteoarthritis may also be caused or accelerated by subtle irregularities in how the hip developed in childhood. 
  • Rheumatoid: This is an autoimmune disease in which the synovial membrane becomes inflamed and thickened. This chronic inflammation can damage the cartilage, leading to pain and stiffness. Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common type of a group of disorders termed "inflammatory arthritis".
  • Traumatic Arthritis: This can follow a serious hip injury or fracture. The cartilage may become damaged and lead to hip pain and stiffness over time. 
  • Avascular necrosis: An injury to the hip, such as a dislocation or fracture, may limit the blood supply to the femoral head. This is called avascular necrosis (also commonly referred to as "osteonecrosis"). The lack of blood may cause the surface of the bone to collapse, and arthritis will result. Some diseases can also cause avascular necrosis. 
  • Congenital Disorders: Some infants and children have hip problems. Even though the problems are successfully treated during childhood, they may still cause arthritis later on in life. This happens because the hip may not grow normally, and the joint surfaces are affected. 


In a total hip replacement (also called total hip arthroplasty), the damaged bone and cartilage is removed and replaced with prosthetic components. The damaged femoral head is removed and replaced with a metal stem that is placed into the hollow center of the femur. The femoral stem may be either cemented or "press-fit" into the bone. A metal or ceramic ball is placed on the upper part of the stem. This ball replaces the damaged femoral head that was removed. The damaged cartilage surface of the socket (acetabulum) is removed and replaced with a metal socket. Screws or cement are sometimes used to hold the socket in place. A plastic, ceramic, or metal spacer is inserted between the new ball and the socket to allow for a smooth gliding surface. 

Candidates for Surgery 

There are no absolute age or weight restrictions for total hip replacements. Recommendations for surgery are based on a patient's pain and disability, not age. Most patients who undergo total hip replacement are age 50 to 80, but orthopaedic surgeons evaluate patients individually. Total hip replacements have been performed successfully at all ages, from the young teenager with juvenile arthritis to the elderly patient with degenerative arthritis.

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What is hip replacement surgery?

Hip replacement surgery, also known as hip arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which a damaged or diseased hip joint is replaced with an artificial joint, called a prosthesis, to relieve pain and improve mobility.

What are the types of hip replacement surgery?

There are several types of hip replacement surgery, including total hip replacement (replacing both the ball and socket of the hip joint), partial hip replacement (replacing only the ball portion of the hip joint), and hip resurfacing (reshaping the damaged bone and capping it with a metal prosthesis)

What are the potential risks and complications of hip replacement surgery?

Potential risks and complications of hip replacement surgery include infection, blood clots, dislocation, implant loosening or failure, nerve or blood vessel injury, and complications related to anesthesia. Patients should discuss these risks with their surgeon before undergoing surgery.

What activities can I do after hip replacement surgery?

Following hip replacement surgery, most patients can engage in low-impact activities such as walking, swimming, cycling, and golfing. However, high-impact activities or sports that involve running, jumping, or heavy lifting may need to be avoided to prevent implant wear or damage.

When can I return to work after hip replacement surgery?

The timing of returning to work depends on factors such as the type of work performed, the physical demands of the job, and the individual's rate of recovery. Most patients can return to light-duty or sedentary work within a few weeks to months after surgery, while those with physically demanding jobs may require a longer recovery period.

What are the risks of ceramic hip replacement?

Like other surgeries, ceramic hip surgery has some risks including:

  • Reaction to anesthesia
  • Infections
  • Excessive bleeding
  • Blood clots.

Who is a candidate for hip replacement surgery?

Candidates for hip replacement surgery typically have severe hip pain, stiffness, and mobility limitations due to conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hip fractures, or avascular necrosis that have not responded to conservative treatments.

What is the recovery process like after hip replacement surgery?

The recovery process varies for each individual but typically involves a hospital stay of 1-3 days followed by physical therapy and rehabilitation to regain strength, mobility, and function in the hip joint. Most patients can resume normal activities within a few weeks to months after surgery.

How long does a hip replacement last?

The lifespan of a hip replacement implant varies depending on factors such as the patient's age, activity level, implant materials, and surgical technique. Generally, most hip replacements last 15-20 years or more before requiring revision surgery.

Will I need physical therapy after hip replacement surgery?

Yes, physical therapy is an essential part of the recovery process after hip replacement surgery. Physical therapists will work with patients to improve strength, flexibility, and range of motion in the hip joint, as well as teach proper techniques for walking and performing daily activities.

How can I prepare for hip replacement surgery?

Patients can prepare for hip replacement surgery by following their surgeon's preoperative instructions, which may include lifestyle modifications, medication adjustments, preoperative testing, and planning for postoperative care and rehabilitation. It's essential to communicate openly with the surgical team and address any concerns or questions before the procedure.


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