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Arteriovenous Malformation Surgery

What is Arteriovenous Malformation?

An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal tangle of blood vessels connecting arteries and veins in the brain or other parts of the body. Normally, arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to various tissues, and veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. In an AVM, the typical network of capillaries between arteries and veins is missing, and the direct connection between arteries and veins can result in abnormal blood flow and pressure.

When and why Arteriovenous Malformation is recommended?

The decision to recommend treatment for an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is based on various factors, including the size, location, symptoms, and overall health of the patient. 
Here are some considerations for when and why AVM treatment may be recommended:

Risk of Hemorrhage:

The primary concern with AVMs is the risk of spontaneous bleeding. Hemorrhage from an AVM can lead to neurological deficits, seizures, loss of consciousness, or even life-threatening complications. The decision to recommend treatment is often influenced by the perceived risk of future hemorrhage.

Size and Location:

The size and location of the AVM are crucial factors. AVMs located in critical areas of the brain or those with larger diameters may pose a higher risk of bleeding and associated complications. Smaller AVMs in less critical areas might have a lower risk.


The presence of symptoms related to the AVM, such as headaches, seizures, neurological deficits, or other neurological symptoms, may influence the decision to recommend treatment. Persistent or severe symptoms may indicate a need for intervention.

Age & Health of the Patient:

The age  and overall health of the patient can be a factor in the decision-making process.

Pregnancy Considerations:

AVM treatment decisions may be influenced by factors such as pregnancy. The potential risks and benefits of treatment during pregnancy must be carefully weighed, and the timing of intervention may be adjusted based on individual circumstances.

How is Arteriovenous Malformation different from the conventional treatment?

It seems there might be a slight confusion in your question. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) itself is a medical condition characterized by abnormal connections between arteries and veins. Here are some common treatment approaches for AVM:

  • Observation:
    In some cases, especially for small and asymptomatic AVMs, a conservative approach of regular monitoring may be chosen. If the AVM is stable and not causing issues, intervention may not be immediately necessary.
  • Surgical Resection:
    Surgical removal of the AVM involves open-skull surgery to excise the abnormal blood vessels. This may be recommended for certain AVMs based on their size, location, and accessibility.
  • Endovascular Embolization:
    This involves threading a catheter through blood vessels to the site of the AVM. Substances, such as glue or coils, are then injected to block or reduce blood flow within the abnormal vessels. This procedure may be used alone or as a preoperative measure to reduce blood flow before surgery.
  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery:
    Stereotactic radiosurgery delivers highly focused radiation to the AVM, aiming to cause changes in the blood vessels over time and reduce the risk of bleeding. This is a non-invasive approach that doesn't require open surgery.

How is life after why Arteriovenous Malformation?

Life after arteriovenous malformation (AVM) treatment can vary significantly based on several factors, including the type of treatment received, the size and location of the AVM, the individual's overall health, and the success of the intervention. Here are some general considerations:

  • Recovery Period:
    The recovery period after AVM treatment can vary. Surgical resection may involve a period of rehabilitation and recovery, while non-invasive treatments like stereotactic radiosurgery may have a shorter recovery time. 
  • Improvement in Symptoms:
    Successful treatment of an AVM aims to reduce the risk of bleeding and alleviate symptoms associated with the malformation. This may include improvements in headaches, seizures, neurological deficits, or other AVM-related symptoms.

Return to Normal Activities:

Many individuals are able to return to their normal activities after AVM treatment, but the timing can vary. 


At Aster Hospitals we provide the highest quality of care and a transformative experience for all your healthcare needs. With our network of multi-speciality hospitals, specialised doctors, and world-class technology, we bring global standards of medical care to our patients.

What Causes AVMs?

The exact cause of AVMs is often unknown. They are considered to be congenital, meaning they are present at birth. Genetic factors may play a role in their development.

What are the Symptoms of AVMs?

Symptoms can vary widely but may include headaches, seizures, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, weakness or numbness, and, in severe cases, loss of consciousness.

How are AVMs Diagnosed?

AVMs are often diagnosed through imaging studies such as angiography, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), or CT (Computed Tomography) scans. These tests help visualize the abnormal blood vessels and assess the size and location of the AVM.

What is Embolization in AVM Treatment?

Embolization is a procedure in which a catheter is used to deliver substances, such as glue or coils, to block or reduce blood flow within the abnormal blood vessels of the AVM. It may be used as a standalone treatment or in combination with other approaches.


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