Psoriasis - Symptoms And Causes

by Dr. Anncilla Jose

Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune skin disorder that causes the rapid build-up of skin cells. 

Key Characteristics of Psoriasis

  • Plaques: The most common form of psoriasis, called plaque psoriasis, is characterized by the appearance of raised, red patches covered with silvery-white scales. These plaques can occur anywhere on the body but are often found on the elbows, knees, scalp, lower back, and face.
  • Itching and Discomfort: Psoriasis can be itchy and uncomfortable. Scratching the affected areas can lead to further irritation and potentially worsen the condition.
  • Variability: Psoriasis symptoms can vary widely from person to person. Some individuals may only have a few small patches, while others may experience more extensive coverage.
  • Triggers: Certain factors can trigger or exacerbate psoriasis flare-ups, including stress, infections, cold weather, dry skin, certain medications, and trauma to the skin.
  • Autoimmune Component: Psoriasis is considered an autoimmune disorder. In individuals with psoriasis, the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy skin cells, causing the excessive growth of skin cells and inflammation.
  • Types of Psoriasis: Apart from plaque psoriasis, there are other types of psoriasis, including guttate psoriasis (small, scattered patches), pustular psoriasis (pus-filled blisters), inverse psoriasis (affects skin folds), and erythrodermic psoriasis (widespread redness and shedding of skin).
  • Psoriatic Arthritis: Some people with psoriasis also develop a form of arthritis known as psoriatic arthritis. This condition involves joint inflammation and can cause pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints.

Treatment and Management

While there is no cure for psoriasis, several treatment options are available to manage its symptoms and reduce flare-ups. Treatment plans are often personalized based on the type and severity of psoriasis.

Common approach to Psoriasis

  • Topical Treatments: These include creams, ointments, and lotions applied directly to the skin. They can help reduce inflammation and control scaling.
  • Phototherapy: Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light under medical supervision can slow down the rapid skin cell growth associated with psoriasis.
  • Systemic Medications: For more severe cases, medications that affect the immune system's response may be prescribed. These can include oral medications or injections.
  • Biologics: These are a specific type of systemic medication that target specific parts of the immune system involved in psoriasis.
  • Lifestyle Changes: Managing triggers, maintaining proper skin care, and leading a healthy lifestyle (including stress management and maintaining a healthy weight) can help reduce the frequency and severity of flare-ups.